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Chang An 长安, The City of Eternal Peace Part. 6 Melting Pot, Westerners and Western Chang An

A Sogdian Auxiliary Cavalryman in Tang service To the many forgners Chang An was also called 胡姆丹(Khumdan.) During the entire Tang period there were altogether 369 prime ministers from 98 surname groups. Those of non-Chinese ethnic origins account for 9 percent of the total but constitute 17.4 percent of the aggregate of surnames- the highest percentage of any Chinese dynasty. The fact that so many non-Chinese foreigners (including many who were not even born within the empire and were in all matters still foreign subjects) had served in the highest ranks of the empire showed a remarkable degree of tolerance for foreigners. The Tang had about one million foreign residents, half of whom lived in Chang An. No less significant is the fact that various ethnic groups, such as the Turks, the Khitans, Xi, Koreans; and toward late Tang the Shatuo Turks, consistently held great sway over the empire's army. Thousands of Uyghurs served in the Tang army as mercenaries. After having

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